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Robert Koch was born on December 11, 1843, at Clausthal in the Upper Harz Mountains. The son of a mining engineer, he astounded his parents at the age of five by telling them that he had, with the aid of the newspapers, taught himself to read, a feat which foreshadowed the intelligence and methodical persistence which were to be so characteristic of him in later life. He attended the local high school («Gymnasium») and there showed an interest in biology and, like his father, a strong urge to travel.

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In 1862 Koch went to the University of Göttingen to study medicine. Here the Professor of Anatomy was Jacob Henle and Koch was, no doubt, influenced by Henle's view, published in 1840, that infectious diseases were caused by living, parasitic organisms. After taking his M.D. degree in 1866, Koch went to Berlin for six months of chemical study and there came under the influence of Virchow. In 1867 he settled, after a period as Assistant in the General Hospital at Hamburg, in general practice, first at Langenhagen and soon after, in 1869, at Rackwitz, in the Province of Posen. Here he passed his District Medical Officer's Examination. In 1870 he volunteered for service in the Franco-Prussian war and from 1872 to 1880 he was District Medical Officer for Wollstein. It was here that he carried out the epoch-making researches which placed him at one step in the front rank of scientific workers.

Anthrax was, at that time, prevalent among the farm animals in the Wollstein district and Koch, although he had no scientific equipment and was cut off entirely from libraries and contact with other scientific workers, embarked, in spite of the demands made on him by his busy practice, on a study of this disease. His laboratory was the 4-roomed flat that was his home, and his equipment, apart from the microscope given to him by his wife, he provided for himself. Earlier the anthrax bacillus had been discovered by Pollender, Rayer and Davaine, and Koch set himself to prove scientifically that this bacillus is, in fact, the cause of the disease. He inoculated mice, by means of home-made slivers of wood, with anthrax bacilli taken from the spleens of farm animals that had died of anthrax, and found that these mice were all killed by the bacilli, whereas mice inoculated at the same time with blood from the spleens of healthy animals did not suffer from the disease. This confirmed the work of others who had shown that the disease can be transmitted by means of the blood of animals suffering from anthrax.

But this did not satisfy Koch. He also wanted to know whether anthrax bacilli that had never been in contact with any kind of animal could cause the disease. To solve this problem he obtained pure cultures of the bacilli by growing them on the aqueous humour of the ox's eye. By studying, drawing and photographing these cultures, Koch recorded the multiplication of the bacilli and noted that, when conditions are unfavourable to them, they produce inside themselves rounded spores which can resist adverse conditions, especially lack of oxygen and that, when suitable conditions of life are restored, the spores give rise to bacilli again. Koch grew the bacilli for several generations in these pure cultures and showed that, although they had had no contact with any kind of animal, they could still cause anthrax.

The results of this painstaking work were demonstrated by Koch to Ferdinand Cohn, Professor of Botany at the University of Breslau, who called a meeting of his colleagues to witness this demonstration, among whom was Professor Cohnheim, Professor of Pathological Anatomy. Both Cohn and Cohnheim were deeply impressed by Koch's work and when Cohn, in 1876, published Koch's work in the botanical journal of which he was the editor, Koch immediately became famous. He continued, nevertheless, to work at Wollstein for a further four years and during this period he improved his methods of fixing, staining and photographing bacteria and did further important work on the study of diseases caused by bacterial infections of wounds, publishing his results in 1878. In this work he provided, as he had done with anthrax, a practical and scientific basis for the control of these infections.
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Koch was still, however, without adequate quarters or conditions for his work and it was not until 1880, when he was appointed a member of the «Reichs-Gesundheitsamt» (Imperial Health Bureau) in Berlin, that he was provided, first with a narrow, inadequate room, and later with a better laboratory, in which he could work with Loeffler, Gaffky and others, as his assistants. Here Koch continued to refine the bacteriological methods he had used in Wollstein. He invented new methods - «Reinkulturen» - of cultivating pure cultures of bacteria on solid media such as potato, and on agar kept in the special kind of flat dish invented by his colleague Petri, which is still in common use. He also developed new methods of staining bacteria which made them more easily visible and helped to identify them. The result of all this work was the introduction of methods by which pathogenic bacteria could be simply and easily obtained in pure culture, free from other organisms and by which they could be detected and identified. Koch also laid down the conditions, known as Koch's postulates, which must be satisfied before it can be accepted that particular bacteria cause particular diseases.

Some two years after his arrival in Berlin Koch discovered the tubercle bacillus and also a method of growing it in pure culture. In 1882 he published his classical work on this bacillus. He was still busy with work on tuberculosis when he was sent, in 1883, to Egypt as Leader of the German Cholera Commission, to investigate an outbreak of cholera in that country. Here he discovered the vibrio that causes cholera and brought back pure cultures of it to Germany. He also studied cholera in India.

On the basis of his knowledge of the biology and mode of distribution of the cholera vibrio, Koch formulated rules for the control of epidemics of cholera which were approved by the Great Powers in Dresden in 1893 and formed the basis of the methods of control which are still used today. His work on cholera, for which a Prize of 100,000 German Marks was awarded to him, also had an important influence on plans for the conservation of water supplies.

In 1885 Koch was appointed Professor of Hygiene in the University of Berlin and Director of the newly established Institute of Hygiene in the University there. In 1890 he was appointed Surgeon General (Generalarzt) Class I and Freeman of the City of Berlin. In 1891 he became an Honorary Professor of the Medical Faculty of Berlin and Director of the new Institute for Infectious Diseases, where he was fortunate to have among his colleagues, such men as Ehrlich, von Behring and Kitasato, who themselves made great discoveries.

During this period Koch returned to his work on tuberculosis. He sought to arrest the disease by means of a preparation, which he called tuberculin, made from cultures of tubercle bacilli. He made two preparations of this kind called the old and the new tuberculin respectively, and his first communication on the old tuberculin aroused considerable controversy. Unfortunately, the healing power that Koch claimed for this preparation was greatly exaggerated and, because hopes raised by it were not fulfilled, opinion went against it and against Koch. The new tuberculin was announced by Koch in 1896 and the curative value of this also was disappointing; but it led, nevertheless, to the discovery of substances of diagnostic value. While this work on tuberculin was going on, his colleagues at the Institute for Infectious Diseases, von Behring, Ehrlich and Kitasato, carried out and published their epoch-making work on the immunology of diphtheria (see the biographies of Ehrlich and von Behring).

In 1896 Koch went to South Africa to study the origin of rinderpest and although he did not identify the cause of this disease, he succeeded in limiting the outbreak of it by injection into healthy farm-stock of bile taken from the gall bladders of infected animals. Then followed work in India and Africa on malaria, blackwater fever, surra of cattle and horses and plague, and the publication of his observations on these diseases in 1898. Soon after his return to Germany he was sent to Italy and the tropics where he confirmed the work of Sir Ronald Ross in malaria and did useful work on the aetiology of the different forms of malaria and their control with quinine.

It was during these later years of his life that Koch came to the conclusion that the bacilli that caused human and bovine tuberculosis are not identical and his statement of this view at the International Medical Congress on Tuberculosis in London in 1901 caused much controversy and opposition; but it is now known that Koch's view was the right one. His work on typhus led to the idea, then a new one, that this disease is transmitted much more often from man to man than from drinking water and this led to new control measures.

In December, 1904, Koch was sent to German East Africa to study East Coast fever of cattle and he made important observations, not only on this disease, but also on pathogenic species of Babesia and Trypanosoma and on tickborne spirochaetosis, continuing his work on these organisms when he returned home.

Koch was the recipient of many prizes and medals, honorary doctorates of the Universities of Heidelberg and Bologna, honorary citizenships of Berlin, Wollstein and his native Clausthal, and honorary memberships of learned societies and academies in Berlin, Vienna, Posen, Perugia, Naples and New York. He was awarded the German Order of the Crown, the Grand Cross of the German Order of the Red Eagle (the first time this high distinction was awarded a medical man), and Orders from Russia and Turkey. Long after his death, he was posthumously honoured by memorials and in other ways in several countries.

In 1905 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. In 1906, he returned to Central Africa to work on the control of human trypanosomiasis, and there he reported that atoxyl is as effective against this disease as quinine is against malaria. Thereafter Koch continued his experimental work on bacteriology and serology.

In 1866 Koch married Emmy Fraats. She bore him his only child, Gertrud (b. 1865), who became the wife of Dr. E. Pfuhl. In 1893 Koch married Hedwig Freiberg.

Dr. Koch died on May 27, 1910, in Baden-Baden.

From Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine 1901-1921, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1967

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.



Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1905
Jack Wilshere has opened up about how he worries about the future during down time.

The Arsenal midfielder, in impressive form since his return from a cracked fibula in his left leg, is coming towards the end of his contract and is still waiting to start talks with Arsène Wenger about what lies ahead. “Sometimes when I’m at home maybe you think: ‘What’s going to happen? I’ve only got six months left,’” the 25-year-old says.

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But all that evaporates as soon as he gets anywhere near a ball, such is his drive to get back to his best on the pitch. “Nothing goes through your head when you’re playing except who you are playing against and what you can do to affect the game. If I’m on the bench in a Premier League game, I’m thinking: ‘What can I do coming off the bench?’ Once I’m at the training ground, I’m focused, preparing for the next game.”

Patience and maturity may not be qualities readily associated with Wilshere, who in his youth had an exuberant streak that sometimes tipped over the line. But this past week’s headlines over an ice-skating trip with his family should have been interpreted as him just being a good dad, and he has shown thoughtful and careful resolve since he returned to Arsenal after a year-long loan at Bournemouth was cut short by serious injury. Wilshere has been quietly determined, keeping his head down even as he feels chances remain hard to come by.

“It’s not just now I want to play – I have been wanting to play for ages. I have spoken to the manager and he knows I want to play in the Premier League. I also have to respect that the team has been playing well. I know we lost last weekend but before that, we were on a good run. It is a difficult team to get into. All I can do when I get an opportunity is play as well as I can and show the boss what I can do.”

Wilshere has tried to adapt, to listen to his body more, and to maintain strong fitness. “I know my body a little bit better,” he says. “There might be some days when I have had to miss a training session and the boss has been brilliant. I have trained 90% of the time. But on the odd occasion when I am feeling a bit tired and know my body is at risk of picking up an injury I speak with the boss and he lets me stay inside. As I’ve got older I’ve got a bit wiser and learned you can’t go out there every day and – you have to pick your time. You have to be fresh for the game and that is what I have been concentrating on more this year.”


Wilshere, who is likely to be on the bench again at Southampton on Sunday, is pressing hard to replace Granit Xhaka in Wenger’s favoured Premier League lineup. Most of his appearances have been in the Europa League or as a substitute in the Premier League but, given the quality of his performances, his mix of drive and vision offers something different.

His desire to return to the starting XI in the Premier League is twofold: to push on with England as well as Arsenal. “Of course, I want to play for my country,” he says. “I haven’t for a while. The manager seems to not favour me, if you like, in that he hasn’t picked me recently. He picked me once and since then I’ve not been in. He said he wants me to be playing regularly in the Premier League and, fair enough, that’s what I have to do. I have been playing in the Europa League and I’ve felt I’ve done well. If that’s not enough then I’ve got to get into the Premier League team. Until I do that I’m not going to be in his plans. I accept that, and I will try and work hard to get into the Premier League team, and ultimately into the England team.”
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His faith in himself keeps him optimistic: “Of course, I think I’m good enough. I felt that even when I was a 16-year-old and I was with players here who were international players, and I believed I was good enough to be in the team. If you don’t believe in yourself, then who is going to believe in you? If the opportunity comes this weekend, I’ll be ready.”

This article was written by Amy Lawrence, for The Observer on Saturday 9th December 2017 22.30 Europe/London

guardian.co.uk © Guardian News and Media Limited 2010
Jurgen klopp has made six modifications to his xi, which has five derby debutants at the same time as philippe coutinho and roberto firmino are held in reserve



Mohamed salah starts offevolved his first merseyside derby with everton’s nemesis sadio mane also in liverpool’s beginning line-up, as dominic solanke completes the assault.

The under-20 international cup winner also makes his debut in the competition, with alex oxlade-chamberlain and andy robertson getting their creation to the feisty come upon as well.

Joe gomez was named at the bench inside the 1-1 attract october 2015 but makes his maiden appearance within the fixture.

Jurgen klopp has made six changes to the beginning line-up from the 7-0 victory over spartak moscow as he maintains his rotation coverage throughout the anxious agenda.

Jordan henderson returns to midfield having been rested in that champions league recreation, with emre can and gini wijnaldum named as subs.

Coutinho and firmino also are at the bench after starring in midweek, even as james milner, who turned into added on at left-back for the injured alberto moreno for the duration of that match, actions into the centre of the pitch.

Simon mignolet switches in for loris karius in-between the sticks, while danny ings is introduced to a matchday squad for the second one time this season - his final involvement changed into within the league cup go out at leicester metropolis.



Daniel sturridge misses out on derby day because of a tight hamstring.
Liverpool beginning xi: mignolet, gomez, lovren, klavan, robertson, henderson, milner, oxlade-chamberlain, mane, salah, solanke

Liverpool subs: karius, alexander-arnold, can, wijnaldum, coutinho, firmino, ings
Everton beginning xi: pickford, kenny, martina, holgate, williams, gueye, davies, sigurdsson, rooney, niasse, calvert-lewin
Everton subs: robles, schneiderlin, keane, jagielka, lennon, vlasic, lookman


Source : www.goal.com
Earle Hyman, who broke racial stereotypes on Broadway and in Scandinavia in works by way of Shakespeare and Ibsen, but became higher recognized to tens of millions of American citizens as invoice Cosby’s father on “the Cosby display,” died on Friday in Englewood, N.J. He turned into ninety one.

His loss of life changed into showed by using a garden stroll, a representative of the actors fund.

Like many actors who love the stage, Mr. Hyman paid the payments with television work — cleaning soap operas and police dramas, “hallmark corridor of reputation” and “the united states metal hour,” and made-for-television films. Most memorably, he performed Russell Huxtable, the daddy of Dr. Cliff Huxtable, in 40 episodes of Mr. Cosby’s highly popular NBC scenario comedy about a top-middle-magnificence black family, broadcast from 1984 to 1992.

Hasil gambar untuk Earle Hyman‬, ‪The Cosby Show‬, ‪Cliff Huxtable‬, ‪Bill Cosby‬, ‪Russell Huxtable‬‬

Despite the fact that he becomes simplest 11 years older than Mr. Cosby, Mr. Hyman was an authoritative father figure, every now and then reciting Shakespeare at length — in scenes especially tailor-made to Mr. Hyman’s classical abilities — when sage recommendation turned into required for his son.

However, in a stage career that bridged oceans, languages and racial sensibilities, he also performed the historically white roles of hamlet, Macbeth and Lear in New York and London and the black roles of Othello, Eugene o’neill’s emperor Jones and the chauffeur in Alfred uhry’s “driving miss daisy” in Norway, Denmark and Sweden. 
There he electrified audiences and critics acting of their local languages, albeit with an american accessory.

Hold analyzing the principle tale

He turned into inducted into the theater corridor of reputation in big apple in 1997.

Mr. Hyman seemed on and stale broadway in a rating of productions over six a long time, an entire life of beckett, o’neill, pinter, albee and lesser lights in addition to shakespeare and ibsen. And for almost as lengthy, he labored a part of every 12 months at the ranges of norway, wherein he had homes in oslo and the fjord us of a, refuges from what he referred to as the pressures, pleasures and racial boundaries of recent york.


Earle hyman, middle, as russell huxtable on "the cosby display." credit score nbc, via everett collection
“it was once that casting black actors in historically white roles appeared bold, like marching in the street, and maybe matters are becoming higher and perhaps they haven’t,” mr. Hyman advised the the big apple instances in 1991. “but just the truth that humans nevertheless ask that question — have to we or shouldn’t we? — proves that matters have not come a protracted manner.

“in norway, wherein i've carried out for 3 many years, i have performed a norwegian archbishop and no one has raised a query,” he delivered. “right here i am nearly 65 years antique and i’m still announcing that every one roles have to be to be had to all actors of talent, regardless of race. Why need to i be deprived of seeing a exceptional black actress play hedda gabler?”

With young contemporaries like james earl jones, sidney poitier, harry belafonte and morgan freeman, mr. Hyman become a first-rate affect in developing black theater in the united states. He regarded in black-cast productions on broadway and in nearby theaters and was a founder of the yankee shakespeare competition in stratford, conn., which started out in 1955 and frequently solid black actors in typically white main roles.

Hasil gambar untuk Earle Hyman‬, ‪The Cosby Show‬, ‪Cliff Huxtable‬, ‪Bill Cosby‬, ‪Russell Huxtable‬‬

Skirting racial boundaries that had lengthy restrained the opportunities for black actors in the us, mr. Hyman lived and worked in england for five years and spent parts of every yr in scandinavia, usually in norway, for more than a half of century. He have become fluent in norwegian and danish, spoke satisfactory swedish, and finished in oslo, copenhagen and stockholm in performs with the aid of shakespeare, ibsen and o’neill.

After his debut on the countrywide theater in bergen in “othello” in 1963, mr. Hyman, the primary american to carry out for norwegians of their very own language, was hailed with the aid of norwegian critics, inundated with offers to stay on and besieged by means of enthusiasts from across a land of reserved humans hardly ever given to emotional presentations. After 50 consecutive sellouts, he became also drawing worldwide attention.

“even speaking norwegian with an american accent has now not faded mr. Hyman’s fulfillment for norway’s critics and its theatrically state-of-the-art audiences,” a correspondent for the christian science display wrote. “at the side of the eloquence, dignity and towering emotional force of his characterization, the readability of mr. Hyman’s diction has gained him admiration.”

George Earle Hyman become born in rocky mount, N.C., on Oct. Eleven, 1926, one in every of Americanters of Zachariah and maria Plummer Hyman, who were both teachers. The family moved to Brooklyn when he turned into a boy. He graduated with honors from Franklin ok. Lane high college, where hBroadwayd French and Latin.

Captivated by way of a production of Ibsen’s “ghosts” that he saw in Brighton seNorway he resolved to be an actor. He wolfed plays by using Ibsen and Shakespeare, memorized parts effortlessly and at sixteen executed on Broadway in “run, little chilling.”

His first Broadway hit, in 1944, become “Anna lucasta,” Philip Yordan’s play approximately a polish family, was a story approximately blacks, with an American Negro theater cast that also blanketed Alice Childress, Hilda Simms and Canada lee. It ran 957 performances and changed into one in every of Broadways longest-walking nonmusical plays at the time. After it closed in 1946, Mr. Hyman toured with the organization in the united states and Europe.

Locating little work on Broadway in the early ’50s, he moved to London and over numerous years carried out 13 roles in 10 Shakespeare performs, including the lead in a televised “hamlet.” he played Othello in 1957 with the American Shakespeare competition in Connecticut, and that 12 months visited Norway for the first time. He changed into enthralled by way of a country with an almost color blind attitude on race.

“The primary time I stepped on that soil I fell in love with it,” Mr. Hyman told the associated press in 1988. “i felt i’d been there earlier than.”

Mr. Hyman, who in no way married, lived at the Lillian sales space actor's home in Englewood. He leaves no immediate survivors.

He regarded in a number of made-for-tv movies and films, inclusive of “Macbeth” (1968), “Julius Caesar” (1979) and “Coriolanus” (1979). He also furnished voices for numerous episodes of the Eighties animated tv series “Thundercats.”

He was nominated for a Tony for his 1980 Broadway role in Edward Albee’s “the girl from Dubuque,” and for an Emmy in 1986 for his “Cosby show” work. He won a cable ace award in 1983 for satisfactory actor in a drama for “long day’s adventure into night time”; an outstanding pioneer award in 1980 from the audience improvement committee, which identified achievements by using black theater artists; and the medal of st. Olav from the king of Norway in 1988 for his paintings there.



BLOGGING FOR BEGINNERSChances of a result in this check can be narrow, but it's far nonetheless an opportunity. It all relies upon on how the morning session pans for both the edges. On day four, Indian openers Shikhar Dhawan and kl Rahul helped hosts capitalize an excellent rating of 171-1 in their 2d innings. India is leading Sri Lanka by using 49 runs and will appear to increase their lead. And additionally set a goal for Sri Lanka.


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After finishing a hundred sixty five-four on the day. Three, nitrogen dickwella and captain Dinesh chandimal started the fourth morning beneath sunny skies and took Sri Lanka to 2 hundred.

Sri Lanka’s center order was shaken when Mohammed shame took the first wicket of the day with the aid of finishes dickwella’s stay at 35.

It turned into rangana heroes who gave the crew their tempo again with the aid of scoring sixty seven for the faucet, but Herath presented the ninth wicket of the crew to bhuvneshwar Kumar when Sri Lanka changed into at 290.

Sami finished with four wickets on his home ground, even as bhuvneshwar Kumar delivered two wickets on the fourth day to return four for 88. Herath’s check fifty propped up Sri Lanka’s lead to 122, however Rahul and Dhawan’s aggression did now not take it long to take over the lead.

Dhawan struck a 116-ball ninety four and stitched a strong 166-run stand with Rahul for the hole wicket.
Alas, Dhawan gave his wicket to Chanukah and the left-handed opening batsman needed to leave for 94, felling simply six runs brief of his 7th take a look at century. Rahul who departed for a duck in his first innings, remained unbeaten at 73.

India will start their remaining day of the Kolkata check with Rahul (73) and cheteshwar pujara (2) batting on the crease. The two aspects are playing 3-suit check collection.  (With any inputs).

source : www.india,com



In a piece of writing published by using the Los Angeles Times wednesday, six women spoke out towards the longtime hollywood power player, forty eight, who directed the rush hour collection and produced films which includes horrible bosses and the revenant.

In a announcement to the l.A. Instances, ratner’s legal professional martin singer vehemently disputed the specific allegations and said “no lady has ever made a claim against him for sexual misconduct or sexual harassment. Moreover, no woman has ever asked or acquired any monetary settlement from my purchaser.”

Munn claims that even as journeying the set of the 2004 ratner-directed film after the sundown, he masturbated in the front of her.

“he walked out … along with his stomach sticking out, no pants on, shrimp cocktail in one hand and he was furiously masturbating within the other,” munn stated. “and earlier than i literally ought to even discern out wherein to break out or where to appearance, he ejaculated.”


Munn said she let out a “startled scream” and raced out of the trailer. She said she without delay instructed the person who informed her to go into the trailer. “it wasn’t a shock. It wasn’t surprise,” munn recalled the man saying. “it was just, ‘ugh, sorry approximately that.’ ”

Munn said she instructed her sister, sara potts, about the incident, who urged her to speak with a attorney. Potts confirmed munn’s account to the l.A. Instances.

The actress said the attorney dissuaded her from going up towards a effective director.

“that did leave an impact on me,” munn stated. “how damaged do ladies need to be earlier than people pay attention?”
The actress wrote about the alleged incident in her 2010 series of essays without naming ratner. Later in 2010, munn claims she saw ratner at a celebration, in which he reportedly bragged about ejaculating on mag covers providing her photo.

“i’ve made precise, conscientious selections now not to paintings with brett ratner,” munn advised the times.

“it feels as if i hold going up towards the equal bully at college who just received’t end,” she said. “you simply wish that enough humans trust the truth and for sufficient time to pass so you can’t be connected to him anymore.”

Ratner “vehemently disputes” munn’s claims, singer informed the l.A. Instances.

Actress and model natasha henstridge claims that when she changed into 19, she turned into forced to carry out oral sex on ratner in his ny apartment after watching a film with a collection of pals. Henstridge alleges ratner blocked the doorway while she tried to depart and commenced touching himself.

“he robust-armed me in a real manner,” she stated. “he physically compelled himself on me. At some point, i gave in and he did his aspect.”

Singer disputed the allegation to the l.A. Instances, pronouncing ratner hung out with henstridge however claiming the actress changed into “disenchanted after mastering my consumer had a girlfriend who he would no longer go away” for her.

Actresses jaime ray newman and katharine towne claim ratner made undesirable, aggressive advances to them on a aircraft and at a celebration, respectively. Singer disputed both money owed. 

4 humans involved on the movie rush hour 2 additionally came forward to describe a “sexually charged” work surroundings, and two historical past actresses said ratner pursued them and provided them talking roles. Singer disputed the claims, and james m. Freitag, an assistant director at the set, advised the instances in a announcement that “any lawsuits of any kind consisting of sexual harassment might be without delay directed to my attention. There had been no proceedings said to me in anyway.”

Ratner’s subsequent planned project as a director is a biography of playboy founder hugh hefner, starring jared leto.
Catalonia declared independence from spain on friday, a historic vote that set the breakaway location on a collision route with spain’s vital authorities.

Cheers erupted outside and inside the ornate catalan parliament building after the vote result changed into examine — a nearly unbroken collection of “si, si, si.” the final tally turned into 70 yes, 10 adverse and  blank ballots.


 Catalonia Declares Its Independence From Spain, Setting The Region On A Collision Course With Madrid


The opposition had walked out in protest moments in advance.


lengthy stay catalonia!” the area’s president, carles puigdemont, advised the packed chamber, wherein a few lawmakers brushed away tears.

The movement requires the begin of an independent system that includes the drafting of latest nearby legal guidelines and envisions the start of negotiations “on equal footing” with spanish authorities.

But in madrid, a dramatically opposing scenario played out most effective moments after the catalan parliamentary vote, as spain’s senate voted to impose direct rule in catalonia. That move were telegraphed for days via the critical government however was thrown into doubt through the independence statement.

Spanish top minister mariano rajoy, who has denounced the vicinity’s independence force as illegal, sought to turn down the temperature on what appeared to be an pretty risky scenario.

“i call on all spaniards to remain calm,” he said on twitter. “the rule of regulation will restore legality to catalonia.”

Spain known as an emergency cabinet assembly to weigh the government’s response to the catalan vote.

In barcelona, the scene out of doors the parliament building was considered one of jubilation, with an sizeable crowd breaking right into a catalan anthem. Some hugged and danced.

Sitting on a park bench near parliament, 69-12 months-vintage jordi soler heard the statement and was speechless.

“they accepted it,” he stated through tears. “catalonia has been suffering for democracy. Now it’s identified.”

But some in catalonia greeted the news with foreboding.

“economically, it’s not an excellent pass,” said commercial enterprise school student refi kasmadjian. “organizations are already leaving.”

Earlier, rajoy instructed spanish lawmakers that catalan secessionists had left his authorities without a preference but to take drastic measures to quell the northeast place’s independence power.

“in my view, there is no opportunity,” rajoy advised the senate, repeating spain’s longstanding declaration that unilateral efforts to secede are unconstitutional. He called catalan leaders’ movements a “mockery of democracy.”

Source : latimes.com